Location: 64 km from Junagadh and 32 km from Verawal
Total Coverage Area:1,412.14 sq. km./ Lion sanctuary 141,213 hectares (of which national park 35,948 hectares).
About Sansan Gir Wildlife Sanctuary
The Gir National Park, was established on 18th September, 1965, as a Forest Reserve, primarily to conserve the Asiatic lion. The total area under national park status is about 2,450 hectares. It is located in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, about 65 km south-east of Junagadh city, and 90 km east of Keshod Airport, in the Kathiawar (Saurashtra) Peninsula. Sasan, with a forest rest-house, is the headquarters of the sanctuary.The Gir is a mixed deciduous type of forest with teak, ber, flame of the forest, jamun, a variety of acacia, particularly babul. It is a hilly tract with plenty of rivers, and offers the visitor long pleasant drives, through the thick forest cover.
Gir National Park is the only remaining habitat of the Asiatic lion, which has been confined to this forest, since 1884 ( about 239 lions were reported in 1985 ).The Asiatic lion is slightly smaller than its African cousin, nevertheless, a large male lion of the Gir is quite a sight to behold. The best way to observe the big cats is, of course, in their natural surroundings, at dawn and dusk, when they are on the prowl. The Forest Department does arrange lion shows every Sunday, where the spectators can watch prides of lions on the hunt.There are guided trips available, to watch these magnificent animals from a very close range.
The chinkara, wild boar, striped hyena, jackal, common langur, porcupine, hare, black buck, are the other animals, that can be found in this sanctuary. There are over 200 bird species including the peafowl, grey partridge, Bonelli’s eagle, crested serpent eagle, jungle bush quail, painted sandgrouse, common green pigeon and several species of doves . The Gir is also home to the marsh crocodile, which can be sighted easily in its rivers, particularly in the lake of the Kamaleshwar dam. There is also a crocodile breeding farm at Sasan.
The Gir National Park is steeped in history and folklore. It boasts of temples of great antiquity, like Kankai Mata and Tulsishyam, a place of pilgrimage with hot springs. The forest is famous for its cattle herders, the Madharis, whose buffaloes form a substantial part of the lions’ meals. Extremely hospitable, the Madharis are herders, whose lifestyle has changed little over the years, and their folklore and traditions are a unique record of coexistence of humans with lions.
Wildlife viewing in the Girs is best done, by driving around the forest. The best drives from Sasan are, to Baval Chowk and Kankai, to Chodavdi and Tulsishyam, and to Kamaleshwar dam. Though a sturdy car would do, a jeep is definitely more appropriate.
Three unusual reserves, the Nalsarovar Lake and Sanctuary – home to several water-birds, the Little Rann of Kutch – home of the Indian wild ass, and the fascinating Flamingo Island, render the state of Gujarat a virtual haven for wildlife buffs.
The Topography(Gir National Park )
The state of Gujarat has some splendid wildlife reserves that are quite out of the ordinary. The Gir National Park is the only home in India of the Asiatic Lion of which there are nearly 300 in the park. This sanctuary lies in the Gujarat peninsula in South West India and is gifted with a terrain that is rugged with low hills and the vegetation is full of mixed deciduous, with stands of Teak, Acacia, Jamun, Tendu and Dhak trees, interspersed with large patches of grasslands. On the hills of the trees are sparse and stunted.
Climate(Gir National Park )
From the three common seasons of summer, winter and monsoon, summer takes the longest stretch, in which the average minimum and maximum temperature ranges between 10°C to nearly 45°C. The hottest months recorded in Gir are April and May. The rains bring some relief from the heat during the monsoons period of, starting from middle of June and September. The maximum recorded during this period in the area is around 1,866 mm and the minimum recorded being 199mm.
Because of less rainfall water always remains a critical factor in the well being of the forest. At times the waterholes are required to be replenished through water tankers from outside and the park staff maintains around 350 of such waterholes.
The Lion King (Gir National Park )
Gir Sanctuary is the last and only home of the critically endangered Asiatic Lion. These lions are a smaller more compact version of their African version, and are best viewed at dawn or dusk when they are on the move. The major difference between the two is that the African Lion appears larger than the Indian Lion because of its large and luxuriant mane.
Extension Of The Sanctuary
In the past Gir had a much bigger coverage area. After Indian government placed a total ban on killing of Lions in 1955, within the time span of three years the area estimation came around 2,560-sq-km and the Lion population was estimated at 287. Since then, the forest area very quickly got reduced in area to 1,452-sq-km. In 1965, the Gujarat government declared Gir forest as a sanctuary and in 1975; part of the sanctuary was declared as a National Park. And with the success of the protection program there is an incredible increase in the Lion population too, from 177 in 1974 to around 300 in 1995.
The main territories of this territorial predator outside Gir in Gujarat include Nagwa Beach in Diu, Sutrapada, Palitana, Mahuva, Savarkundla, Mitiyala, Keshod, Maliya Hatina, and Girnar.